Vitreo Retina & Uvea
The retina is an extension of the brain. It forms the interior lining of the eye and contains millions of light-sensitive nerve endings. The light rays that enter the eye pass though the cornea, pupil, lens, and vitreous ultimately focusing on the retina. The retina then perceives the light and transmits nerve impulses through the optic nerve to the brain, where a visual image is created.Vitreous is a clear, gel-like substance that fills the cavity between the lens and the retina.
Vitreo-Retinal (VR) surgery is a branch of ophthalmology that deals with the surgical management of vitreous and retinal diseases of the eye.
Inflammation of uveal tissue is uveitis. Causes can be infective, inflammatory or autoimmune. Sometimes it is associated with systemic conditions like joint or skin disorders .Uveitis usually presents with eye pain, redness and photophobia. In severe stages visual loss can occur. Complete systemic work up is required in many patients to detect the underlying pathology.
BASELINE: This includes the routine tests like Complete blood count (CBC), urine tests, rheumatoid factor (RF Factor) or Mantoux test which shows the current systemic condition of the patient.
SPECIAL TESTS: Serological evaluation for infective etiology (IgG and IgM) is done. Autoantibodies for autoimmune diseases and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial or viral pathology are also tested.
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES: In some cases, diagnostic tap of aqueous fluid or vitreous is taken for confirmation.
OCULAR EXAMNIATIONS : Complete eye examination with dilated fundoscopy is done for all patients with uveitis. Imaging like ultrasound biomicroscopy gives the exact location of lesion and severity. Anterior segment OCT is also useful in some cases.
Medical treatment: Medical management is with topical Steriods and NSAID’s and dosage decided depending upon the severity of the condition.
Surgical treatment: 23G Pars Plana Vitrectomy, ILM Peeling, membranectomy, intravitreal drug administration, complicated cataract extraction and vitreous biopsy are the surgical interventions done.