Paediatric Ophthalmology & Squint
- Squeezing his/her eyes while looking at book/Tv/Toys.
- Tilting the head while talking, walking/ playing.
- Going to close to the book or tv.
- Recurrent eye pains, headaches.
- Avoids reading, colouring most of the time.
- Has bad handwriting at school.
- Eyes turning inwards/outwards.
- Difficulty in seeing in sunlight, bright light on the evening.
- Itching, watering.
All children should be seen by an eye doctor for the first time at 3-4 years of age .however if any of the following are present then the child should be brought to the eye doctor at the earliest:
– One on both parents wearing glasses
– History of consanguity(marraige among cousins) in family
– Premature delivery
– Birth weight less than 1.5 Kgs.
– History of any congenital defects like heart, kidney etc.
– History of febrile fits or any convulsion.
– History of admission in the ICU- incubation/ ventilation given to child.
– Behavioural disorders or any developmental delay in the child.
– History of colour blindness and retinal disease in family.
— Early detection of eye sight problem gives rise to bettter vision development.
— Good vision correction causes good performance at school and home.
— Squinting of eye if diagnosed early can be treated with exercises and glasses in some cases.
— It is possible to give the child good binocular(coordinated) development of eyes.
— Other behaviouaral, social problems if present in the child will also benifit in their treatment.
If the child has a problem then anytime is a good time to visit the eye doctor however specific visits can be planned as
– A preterm infacts/low birth at infant at 4 weeks after birth.
– A normal baby at 3 to 3½ years of age for a preschool eye check.
— Comprehensive preschool check up
— Watery eye evaluation
— ROP screening
— Squint clinic
— Glasses prescription
— Lazy eye Screening
— Visual disorders management
— Screening for special children
This involves a complete screening of a child for vision, squint, retina and optic nerve diorders. For preschool eye check following examinations are carried out
Examination of anterior part of the eye: screening for congenital corneal disease, anterior chamber, lens diseases.
Vision testing: ability of the child to see, that is measured by specialized preschool picture charts of international standards and is age matched.
Examination of presence of any deviation or squinting of the eyes: this is carried out by speacial measuring instrumrents that are child friendly and not intimidating ot the child in any way.
Binocular vision function of eyes testing: here the tests performed ascertain whether there is coordinated use of both the eyes.
Color vision, pupil and contract senstiviy testing.
Examination of the intraocular pressure: this is done in children specially with a positive family history or
examination findings suggestive of an increase.
Check for confirmation of eye glasse power: by special eye drops after relaxing the eye muscles so that any glass power that is hidden and not apparent can also be screened
Examination of retina and optic nerve.
— Lazy eye management.
— Glass prescription.
— Eye excercises.
— Low vision aids.
— Allergic eye conditions.
— Eye infections.
— Glaucoma management.
— Retinal lasers.
— Congenital cataract management.
— Corneal transplant.
— Squint correction.
— Retinal surgeries in children.